Created a year ago, updated a month ago

GLA Covid-19 Mobility Report

Since March 2020, London has seen many different levels of restrictions - including three separate lockdowns and many other tiers/levels of restrictions, as well as easing of restrictions and even measures to actively encourage people to go to work, their high streets and local restaurants. This reports gathers data from a number of sources, including google, apple, citymapper, purple wifi and opentable to assess the extent to which these levels of restrictions have translated to a reductions in Londoners' movements.

The data behind the charts below come from different sources. None of these data represent a direct measure of how well people are adhering to the lockdown rules - nor do they provide an exhaustive data set. Rather, they are measures of different aspects of mobility, which together, offer an overall impression of how people Londoners are moving around the capital. The information is broken down by use of public transport, pedestrian activity, retail and leisure, and homeworking.

Public Transport

For the transport measures, we have included data from google, Apple, CityMapper and Transport for London. They measure different aspects of public transport usage - depending on the data source. Each of the lines in the chart below represents a percentage of a pre-pandemic baseline.

Summary of transport data
Source Latest Baseline Min value in Lockdown 11 Min value in Lockdown 2 Min value in Lockdown 3
Apple Apple Mobility Index Apr 10, 2021 Requests for directions made by its users compared to a baseline of 13 Jan 2020. 13% 44% 33%
Citymapper Citymapper mobility index Apr 11, 2021 Compares trips planned and trips taken within its app to a baseline of the four weeks from 6 Jan 2020 8% 28% 19%
Google Google Mobility Report Apr 7, 2021 Location data shared by users of Android smartphones, compared time and duration of visits to locations to the median values on the same day of the week in the five weeks from 3 Jan 2020 20% 40% 27%
TfL Bus Transport for London Apr 4, 2021 Bus journey ‘taps’ on the TfL network compared to same day of the week in four weeks starting 13 Jan 2020 - 34% 24%
TfL Tube Transport for London Apr 4, 2021 Tube journey ‘taps’ on the TfL network compared to same day of the week in four weeks starting 13 Jan 2020 - 30% 21%

1 Machines disabled for much of first lockdown

Pedestrian activity

With the data we currently have it's harder to estimate pedestrian activity and high street busyness. A few indicators can give us information on how people are making trips out of the house:

Summary of data sources for pedestrian mobility
Source Latest Baseline Min value in Lockdown 1 Min value in Lockdown 2 Min value in Lockdown 3
Walking Apple Mobility Index Apr 10, 2021 estimates the frequency of trips made on foot compared to baselie of 13 Jan ‘20 22% 47% 36%
Parks Google Mobility Report Apr 7, 2021 Frequency of trips to parks. Changes in the weather mean this varies a lot. Compared to baseline of 5 weeks from 3 Jan '20 30% 55% 41%
Retail & Rec Google Mobility Report Apr 7, 2021 Estimates frequency of trips to shops/leisure locations. Compared to baseline of 5 weeks from 3 Jan '20 30% 55% 41%

Retail and recreation

In this section, we focus on estimated footfall to shops, restaurants, cafes, shopping centres and so on.

Summary of data sources for retail/recreation
Source Latest Baseline Min value in Lockdown 1 Min value in Lockdown 2 Min value in Lockdown 3
Grocery & pharmacy Google Mobility Report Apr 7, 2021 Estimates frequency of trips to grovery shops and pharmacies. Compared to baseline of 5 weeks from 3 Jan '20 32% 55% 45%
Retail & rec Google Mobility Report Apr 7, 2021 Estimates frequency of trips to shops/leisure locations. Compared to baseline of 5 weeks from 3 Jan '20 32% 55% 45%
Restaurants OpenTable State of the Industry Apr 4, 2021 London restaurant bookings made through OpenTable 0% 0% 0%
Social venues Purple Dec 9, 2020 Public WiFi data from bars, restaurants and other leisure locations. Compared to baseline of 9 weeks from Jan 13 '20 4% 6% -

Home Working

The Google Mobility Report estimates changes in how many people are staying at home and going to places of work compared to normal. It's difficult to translate this into exact percentages of the population, but changes back towards ‘normal' can be seen to start before any lockdown restrictions were lifted. This value gives a seven day rolling (mean) average to avoid it being distorted by weekends and bank holidays.

Summary of data sources for homeworking
Source Latest Baseline Min/max value in Lockdown 1 Min/max value in Lockdown 2 Min/max value in Lockdown 3
Residential Google Mobility Report Apr 7, 2021 Estimates changes in how many people are staying at home for work. Compared to baseline of 5 weeks from 3 Jan '20 131% 119% 125%
Workplaces Google Mobility Report Apr 7, 2021 Estimates changes in how many people are going to places of work. Compared to baseline of 5 weeks from 3 Jan '20 24% 54% 40%
Overview of key events/control measures
Date Average Citymapper value Average homeworking
Work from home advised Mar 17, 2020–Mar 21, 2020 57% 118%
Schools, pubs closed Mar 21, 2020–Mar 24, 2020 34% 119%
UK enters first lockdown Mar 24, 2020–May 10, 2020 10% 130%
Some workers encouraged to return to work May 10, 2020–Jun 1, 2020 15% 125%
Schools open, small groups outside Jun 1, 2020–Jun 15, 2020 19% 122%
Non-essential businesses re-open Jun 15, 2020–Jul 4, 2020 24% 120%
Hospitality reopens Jul 4, 2020–Aug 3, 2020 34% 115%
Eat out to help out scheme begins Aug 3, 2020–Sep 8, 2020 44% 113%
Rule of 6 Sep 8, 2020–Sep 24, 2020 53% 111%
10pm Curfew Sep 24, 2020–Oct 15, 2020 51% 112%
Tier 2 (High alert) Oct 15, 2020–Nov 5, 2020 49% 113%
Second Lockdown Nov 5, 2020–Dec 2, 2020 31% 118%
Tier 2 (High alert) Dec 2, 2020–Dec 19, 2020 45% 115%
Tier 4 (Stay at home advised) Dec 19, 2020–Jan 5, 2021 22% 124%
Third Lockdown Jan 5, 2021–Mar 8, 2021 22% 122%
Schools open Mar 8, 2021–Apr 12, 2021 32% 118%
Most recent data: 2020-12-09
Most recent data: 2021-02-09
Most recent data: 2021-02-09
Most recent data: 2021-02-27
Mobility Indices  (111.65 kB)
Most recent data: 2021-03-21